In road, railroad, and airfield construction, the movement of large volumes of earth (earthwork) is one of the most important construction operations. It requires a great amount of engineering effort. The planning, scheduling, and supervising of earthwork operations are of major importance in obtaining an efficiently operated construction project. Earthwork computations involve the calculation of volumes or quantities, the determination of final grades, the balancing of cuts and fills, and the planning of the most economical haul of material. The surveyor uses field notes and established grade to plot the cross sections at regular stations and at any plus stations which may have been established at critical intermediate points. The line representing the existing ground surface and those lines representing the proposed cut or fill enclose cross-section areas. The surveyor uses these areas and the measured distances along the centerline to compute earthwork volumes (from U.S. Department of the Army).
- Planning of earthwork operations
- Area computation
- Earth and rock excavation
- Borrow pits
Professional Development Hours: 2